Parts of a window explained (2023)

Lar>Do-it-yourself how-to projects and tutorial guides>Parts of a window and window types explained

Although there are a few different window types, they share many common parts. Learn about the different parts that make up a window, such as B. Frame, sill (or sill), sash, etc. and what each part does. Also, learn about the different window types and where they are commonly used.

We know what a window is - it's a hole in a building that we can see in through, but we tend to call all parts of a window "the window," which can cause confusion when you're repairing your windows or need to decorate. So we thought we'd explain the terminology and give a clear explanation of the parts of a window.

Parts of a window explained (1)

parts of a window

The window frame and its parts consist of a head at the top, jambs at the side, and a sill or sill at the bottom, and if used, a dividing jamb called a jamb and a horizontal divider called a transom. See picture above.

The window frame consists of a top rail at the top, stiles on the sides, and a bottom rail at the bottom (no surprise there). See picture above.

A small open window at the top is called a vent light.

The parts of a window that actually open are called sashes.

If part of a window does not open, it is called a fixed light.

Window Parts Glossary

To expand a bit further on the different parts of a window, the following list explains all the common elements that make up the different window types:

Parts of a window explained (2)
(Video) Windows 101: Window Anatomy

  • fall: A beam across the top of a window, usually made of wood, steel or concrete
  • Quadro: it is usually wood, plastic or metal. It keeps the light in place and supports the window system. The following components are usually made of the same material as the frame.
  • Kopf: The upper part of the frame, located under the lintel
  • flap: The vertical parts that form the sides of the frame
  • Crowd: A vertical partition between two window units or lights
  • transom: A horizontal partition between two window units or lights
  • threshold (or cell): The lower part of the window frame, usually angled and protruding above the wall line to allow rainwater to run off
  • Luz: The area between the outer parts of a window, usually filled with a pane of glass. This is what we commonly refer to as the "window".
  • Area: The frame that holds the glass
  • wing: A window (or sash) that is attached to its frame with one or more hinges

window materials

Windows should be made of weather-resistant materials, with good insulating properties, strong and durable, safe and easy to clean.

In almost all cases, windows are made of one of the following materials:

  • Madeira: hard or soft wood. Hardwood windows are generally more expensive to purchase, but will last longer and may require less maintenance. Both need to be painted or varnished to avoid damage from the elements
  • Metal: Steel and aluminum windows can be framed with a thinner profile, giving you more glass and less frame. They can be more prone to condensation than wood windows. They still need to be varnished to protect them from the elements, but some factory processes keep maintenance to a minimum.
  • PVC: Also called “plastic” or PVC windows. These windows are inexpensive and readily available. They offer excellent sound and heat insulation and are low-maintenance. Mainly supplied in white finish, some colored versions such as "rosewood effect" are available. They may not be appropriate for historic properties, especially if they are listed buildings.

energy saving properties

Windows can be double or triple glazed, including secondary double or triple glazing to improve energy efficiency.

As you might have guessed, double glazed windows or double glazed units consist of 2 panes of glass while triple glazed units consist of 3 panes of glass.

Parts of a window explained (3)

To further increase the energy efficiency of a double or triple glazed window, the air between the panes of the unit is often replaced with an inert gas such as argon (although krypton and xenon can also be used), which has a 30% lower thermal conductivity than traditional air , which makes the glazing even more efficient.

Modern glass technology can also save energy by storing heat, dissipating additional external heat and saving cleaning effort with self-cleaning technology.

Modern windows are often referred to as "energy-saving glazing". This is because they have coated low emissivity (often referred to as "Low-E") panels that help prevent heat escaping through them.

Different types of windows

Besides window components, there are also different names for windows that have different opening systems (or none at all), different properties, and even different positions in a given building.

Fixed light windows

A fixed light window is a window that cannot be opened. These can be placed where opening the window would be impractical or dangerous, such as B. Long windows in stairways, but where light is an advantage.

Some windows have fixed lights and opening stops.

Parts of a window explained (4)

sliding window

The glass is fitted into “wings” (movable panels) that slide vertically over each other. Usually both sashes slide, but some windows have a single hung sash, one fixed and the other movable.

This can make a first floor window safer, but impedes airflow and is not as efficient as double pane, where both panes move.

(Video) Window Anatomy | Ask Kevin | Ask This Old House

  • english: One area is movable and the other is fixed
  • double hanging strap: The frames are suspended on counterweights or with spring swings and consist of 2 frames that slightly overlap and slide up and down vertically within the frame
  • horizontal track: Two wings that slightly overlap and slide horizontally on guide rails inside the frame

Sash windows are mostly used in historic properties and have traditionally been the window of choice, but they have the disadvantage that they tend not to be as energy efficient and can easily create drafts if not sealed and properly maintained.

If you have traditional casement windows that let in drafts,See our project for sealing sliding windows herefor advice on how to fix this problem

Parts of a window explained (5)

casement window

An opening window attached to the frame with hinges. These are now the most commonly manufactured windows in the UK as they are easier to maintain and more energy efficient than sash windows and more traditional stone mullion windows.

The name casement window derives from the part of the window that opens, called the casement.

They generally open outward, although some older window designs open inward.

Traditionally, casement windows were made of iron and glazed with small panes of glass, all held together byglass rods(or sprout, sprout or sprout, as they are also called).

The use of small panes and muntins was economical in most cases as glass in small panes was easier and cheaper to produce, but the aesthetic effect created by the muntins was also very attractive.

In most cases, the frames or moving parts of a casement window are secured using one of the following methods:

  • hung window: The sash is hinged at the side and opens outwards
  • hung window: The sash is hinged at the top and opens outwards. A small overhead slider is also known as a vent light (see above)
  • hung window: The band is hinged at the bottom and pivots inward to open

Traditional casement windows also have a metal bar called a "stick" to hold them open, but modern casement windows use the actual hinge to prevent them from opening and closing on their own.

Most casement windows these days are typically made from PVC, but if you have wooden casement windows they need careful maintenance to ensure they don't deteriorate and decompose.To learn how to properly paint casement windows, check out our project here.

Parts of a window explained (6)

Tilt and rotate windows

Pivoting and pivoting windows have a mechanism that allows them to tilt inward from a ledge or open inward on one side.

Due to the stability of the mechanism, bottom-hung and side-hung windows can be larger than casement windows. They are also easy to clean from the inside and are therefore often used in apartments.

Parts of a window explained (7)
(Video) Technical Terms in Door and Window. Head,Sill,Top rail,Lock rail,Bottom rail,Freze,Horn,Rebate,Panel

pivot window

Pivoting windows are hung on a hinge at the midpoints of each of the two opposite sides. This allows the window to rotate when opened.

Pivots can be vertical with hinges mounted at the top and bottom, or horizontal with hinges mounted at each end.

Parts of a window explained (8)

Bay window

These consist of multi-panel windows projecting from the outer wall line and supported by a low wall. They can be single or multi-story.

The nameBay windowIt derives from the French word for opening or area between two pillars, which is "baee".

The use, construction and use of bay windows goes back hundreds of years, to the Middle Ages.

They were commonly used for a number of reasons including their ornate appearance, the fact that they let a lot of light into a room, making it much larger and also allowing a much better view of the outside than a regular flat casement window.

Parts of a window explained (9)

folding windows or doors

Folding windows consist of several individual frames or panels that are hinged together. Despite the "bi-fold" name, they usually have more than 2 sheets or panels.

When opened, they fold side by side, allowing a large opening to, for example, a garden without the windows being visible.

Double folds appear in most modern homes and additions due to their "open" nature and are often thought of as a modern development, but they actually date back to Roman times!

As with bay windows, folding windows and doors let an enormous amount of light into a room, often making it appear much larger than it actually is, plus the added benefit that since they can essentially be removed, you can connect two rooms together, doesn't matter whether there are two interior spaces or one space and one exterior space.

Parts of a window explained (10)


The Louvre's windows are made up of a series of parallel pieces of glass suspended from central spigots positioned at intervals beneath vertical frames, which open and close with a crank or lever. This is the same system as a blind.

A major disadvantage of windows with roller shutters is that they do not have very good insulating properties.

Parts of a window explained (11)
(Video) Different Parts or Anatomy of Windows or Window Frames and Window Panals for Civil Eningeers

Claraboia, Velux or skylight

These are windows built into the ceiling. The "Velux" brand is associated with opening skylights in houses.

Skylights or Velux windows have traditionally been the first choice for anyone wanting to bring some natural daylight into an attic or roof or even into an existing extension or flat roof.

Despite the initial cost, skylights and skylights can help you save on your electricity bills because they bring natural light into a dark area and you don't have to use electric lights, certainly during the day.

As mentioned above, providing natural light instead of artificial light can also make a room appear much larger than it really is and look a lot nicer too!

Skylights, Velux windows and skylights are available in a variety of sizes, shapes and designs to suit every taste and requirement.

Parts of a window explained (12)


Unlike a skylight (above), this is a window fitted into a small covered structure protruding from the main pitched roof of a building.

In most cases, a mansard is added to an existing roof to provide additional headroom and usable space, and also to allow for the installation of a standard vertical window.

A dormer window is often added to a loft conversion.

There are different types of mansards that can be built, the most common are:

  • Sleep on your hip (sleep on your hip roof): The mansard roof consists of 3 sloping sections that converge at the ridge
  • Dormer Gable (Dormer Dianteiro Gable): The ridge extends 90° from the existing ridge and the sides of the mansard extend down from it
  • flat sleeper: The mansard is formed by a flat roof that protrudes from the existing roof. A gradual slope is also provided to allow rainwater drainage.
  • Dormer Sheddach: Very similar in construction to the flat roof mansard above, but unlike a gradual slope, the roof slope matches the slope and slope of the existing roof. This allows for a lot more headroom inside.
  • wall sleeper: Unlike the mansards which tend to detach from the existing ridge, the front of the mansard rises from the wall panel of the existing building and the roof of the mansard runs back to the existing roof
Parts of a window explained (13)

We hope this list will help you understand the different window types and window components, which should help you when planning any renovation or renovation project.

All project content written and produced byMike Edwards, founder of DIY Doctor and industry expert for building technology.


What is the main function of a window? ›

A window is an opening formed in a wall or roof primarily to admit daylight through some transparent or translucent material. Windows also serve an important function in providing controlled natural ventilation to buildings and make a major contribution to the visual appearance of buildings.

What is the wood above a window called? ›

The lintel of a window is a beam that sits horizontally along the top of the window (above the head of the frame). Commonly made of wood, steel or concrete, the lintel is a key part of the window construction.

What is the proper placement of windows? ›

Placing the window four or more feet above the ground is crucial to avoid blinding sunlight. If possible, position the window so it's facing north or south rather than east or west. Harsh sunlight can stream through an east- or west-facing window, making it difficult for you to see your computer.

What are the four parts of a window? ›

What Are the Parts of Windows?
  • Sill – The lowest part of the window frame.
  • Head – The highest part of the window frame.
  • Jamb – The vertical sides of the window frame.
  • Apron – A piece of decorative trim installed beneath the railing or sill.

What are the basic components of windows? ›

An application window includes elements such as a title bar, a menu bar, the window menu (formerly known as the system menu), the minimize button, the maximize button, the restore button, the close button, a sizing border, a client area, a horizontal scroll bar, and a vertical scroll bar.

What is window and explain its features? ›

Windows is a collection of programs known as an operating system (OS) that controls a PC (personal computer). First produced by Microsoft in November 1985, it has been frequently updated since, as computer memory has got bigger, as processing chips have got faster and, of course, when the internet was invented.

What is the first bar in a window called? ›

Techopedia Explains Title Bar

In most instances, a title bar is present at the top of a window and displayed by a horizontal bar. The right corner of a title bar provides options for minimizing, maximizing or closing a window. By default, a title bar contains opened window names.

What is the bar at the top of a window called? ›

The title bar at the top of a window displays an application-defined icon and line of text. The text specifies the name of the application and indicates the purpose of the window. The title bar also makes it possible for the user to move the window using a mouse or other pointing device.

What is the top pane of a window called? ›

Head. The head is the main horizontal part forming the top of the window frame. Jambs. Jambs are the main vertical parts forming the sides of a window frame. Sill.

What is the difference between Muntins and mullions? ›

Typically muntins are made of wood or metal. Historically muntins were used because it was less expensive to use smaller pieces of glass, rather than a large single pane of glass. A mullion on the other hand is a bar or post that separates window units.

What is the thumb rule for breadth of window? ›

Firstly, that windows should be at least 50% of the window wall width and, secondly, that room depth should be no greater than twice the room width for full width windows (and less deep for less than full width windows).

Should windows be installed from the inside or outside? ›

In colder climates, it is generally more efficient to install windows from the inside to be sealed against the cold air. However, installing windows from the outside is more common in warmer temperatures, as it allows for better airflow and cooling.

What are the five features of Windows? ›

Major features include- start menu, task manager, taskbar, Cortana, file explorer, MS Paint, Browser, control panel etc. The advantages of the windows Operating system are- the majority of the users use windows, it has programming and gaming support, clean and lucid GUI and Microsoft office support.

How many parts are in a window? ›

It contains the entire window system and is formed by three parts: the sill (bottom), the jamb (left and right side), and the head (top). Sill - The sill forms the bottom part of the window frame. Jamb - The jamb is the vertical side of the frame on the right or left side of the window.

What are the 20 features of Windows 10? ›

Version 1507
  • Microsoft Edge. Main article: Microsoft Edge. ...
  • DirectX 12. Windows 10 includes DirectX 12 alongside WDDM 2.0. ...
  • Xbox One integration. Windows 10 brings more updates to the Xbox app introduced in Windows 8. ...
  • Game Bar and game DVR. ...
  • Action Center. ...
  • Command line. ...
  • Continuum. ...
  • Cortana.

What are the three main components of windows? ›

The main components of the Windows Operating System are the following: Configuration and maintenance. User interface. Applications and utilities.

What is the trim inside a window called? ›

Apron. Installed beneath the stool of the window, the apron is a decorative piece of trim that helps provide the interior of the window with a modern look and design.

What are the things in the middle of windows called? ›

Today, mullions are the vertical bars between the panes of glass in a window.

How do I identify Windows components? ›

The first place you can look for information on your PC's configuration is Settings > System > About. The easiest way to get there is to right-click on the Windows icon and select “System” from the menu. This is how to check PC parts according to Microsoft.

What is the system structure of Windows? ›

Layered Structure

One way to achieve modularity in the operating system is the layered approach. In this, the bottom layer is the hardware and the topmost layer is the user interface. As seen from the image, each upper layer is built on the bottom layer.

Where are Windows features? ›

In Apps & features > Optional features > More Windows features, there are more features that you and your users can install.

What are the slats called in windows? ›

A muntin (US), muntin bar, glazing bar (UK), or sash bar is a strip of wood or metal separating and holding panes of glass in a window. Muntins can be found in doors, windows, and furniture, typically in Western styles of architecture.

How do you describe different types of windows? ›

Casement windows are essentially hinged windows, operated by a crank. A bay window is generally a large window that projects outwards from an exterior wall. Double-hung sash windows have two sashes that slide up and down in a frame. Awning windows are hinged at the top and open outwards.

What are the types of windows explain? ›

Types include the eyebrow window, fixed windows, hexagonal windows, single-hung, and double-hung sash windows, horizontal sliding sash windows, casement windows, awning windows, hopper windows, tilt, and slide windows (often door-sized), tilt and turn windows, transom windows, sidelight windows, jalousie or louvered ...

What is the name of the lowest bar of the window? ›

By default, the taskbar sits at the bottom of the screen.

What do you call a window overhang? ›

An awning or overhang is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building.

What are the grids between windows called? ›

Window grids, also called grilles or muntins, divide your window's glass into sections with partitions of wood, vinyl, fiberglass, or other materials. Gridded windows are a popular feature for historic homes, and grid patterns can vary, from classic rectangular to modern cottage, to perfectly match your home's style.

What does transom mean on a window? ›

Kids Definition

transom. noun. tran·​som ˈtran(t)-səm. : a horizontal crossbar in a window, over a door, or between a door and a window or fanlight above it. : a window above a door or other window built on and commonly hinged to a transom.

What is the little window in a door called? ›

Sidelights. Sidelights are tall narrow windows found on one or both sides of a door. Sidelights allow more light into entryways, improve views, and can create a more welcoming entry point experience.

Does height or width come first for windows? ›

We recommend that you always note the width first, followed by the height. This ensures that you won't be in doubt about which figure is which when ordering your new windows and doors. Height: Measure left, middle and right. Make sure to write down the smallest measured dimensions.

How much gap do you leave when framing a window? ›

Recommended rough opening is between 3/4" (19mm) - 1" (25mm) larger than the window width and height. Ensure that the rough opening is plumb, level and square, and the walls in the opening are not twisted.

Which way is length and width on a window? ›

To get the width, measure from left to right, jamb to jamb. Do it at the top, middle and bottom of the jambs to get three width measurements. For height, measure from the head down to the window sill on both sides and in the middle. Brush up on your window anatomy to be sure you're measuring from the right spots.

What gets replaced when you get new windows? ›

A replacement window is a window that is smaller than the existing window and which replaces a majority of the existing window, such as the glass and moving parts. So, replacement windows are not a one-for-one, exact replacement. Replacement windows are sometimes called pocket windows or insert windows to reflect this.

Should windows be open or closed when hot outside? ›

Generally, a home that has adequate insulation allows cool air to remain indoors during warm weather. In that regard, it would make sense to keep the windows closed, especially if the temperature outside is hotter than it is inside.

How do you tell if a window is installed correctly? ›

If a window was correctly installed, it should open and close fully and smoothly without any sticking. If your window sticks so much you have to force it to move or it doesn't reach the frame when you try to close it, you have a problem. Either the sash wasn't properly aligned, or it's the wrong size for the window.

What are mullions and muntins? ›

Mullions are vertical shafts located in between windows. These elements offer structural support for the windows. Meanwhile, muntins are found on the window glass itself. They are vertical and horizontal elements that divide a window's glass into a grid.

What is the inside ledge of a window called? ›

A window sill, also known as a window ledge or window bottom, is the shelf-like, flat piece of the window trim found at the base of the window.

What is the inside window trim called? ›

Apron. Installed beneath the stool of the window, the apron is a decorative piece of trim that helps provide the interior of the window with a modern look and design.

What are the crossbars in a window called? ›

A muntin (US), muntin bar, glazing bar (UK), or sash bar is a strip of wood or metal separating and holding panes of glass in a window.

What is the bar in between two windows called? ›

Today, mullions are the vertical bars between the panes of glass in a window.

What is the bottom bar of a window called? ›

A taskbar is an element of a graphical user interface which has various purposes. It typically shows which programs are currently running. The specific design and layout of the taskbar varies between individual operating systems, but generally assumes the form of a strip located along one edge of the screen.

What is a window surround called? ›

Casing is the decorative frame or moulding that is found around the window to cover the space between the jamb and the wall. Sometimes, it can be seen covering space between two window frames.

What holds a window pane in place? ›

Sash. This is the part of the window that holds the panes in place. It's made up of the horizontal and vertical frames surrounding the glass.

What is the small top window called? ›

A small opening window at the top is called a vent light. The parts of a window that actually open are called casements.


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